Re-Positioning the Law of Theft in View Of Recent

  • Mzukisi Niven Njotini University of South Africa
Keywords: ICTs, World Wide Web, Internet, Hardware, Software

Abstract

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) continue to influence the behaviour of society. Sometimes this influence is so unreal that it was only imagined in science fiction.  Specifically, the rapid rise in the use of ICTs has resulted in the emergence of new kinds of object, namely data, that do not necessarily meet the traditional legal discription of property. Because these objects can be wrongfully appropriated online, an inquiry is then made regarding  whether they are property that is capable of being stolen.

 

Google_Scholar_12045.png    ScienceOpen_Log034331.png

Author Biography

Mzukisi Niven Njotini, University of South Africa
LLB, LLM, LLD Candidate

References

Bibliography

Literature

Adeley et al World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions
Adeley G et al World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: A Resource for Readers and Writers (Bolchazy-Carducci Illinois 1999)

Anders and Ellson Criminal Law
Anders PC and Ellson SE The Criminal Law of South Africa (Hortor Johannesburg 1915)

Bentham Of the Limits
Bentham J Of the Limits of the Penal Branch of Jurisprudence (Clarendon Oxford 2010)

Blackstone Commentaries
Blackstone W Commentaries on the Laws of England 18th ed (Maxwell London 1836)

Bracton Laws and Customs
Bracton H On the Laws and Customs of England (Belknap Cambridge 1968)

Brickey 1980 Vand L Rev
Brickey KF "The Jurisprudence of Larceny – An Historical Inquiry and Interest Analysis" 1980 Vand L Rev 1101-1142

Brody and Acker Criminal Law
Brody DC and Acker JR Criminal Law 2nd ed (Aspen Gaithersburg 2001)

Buckland Text-Book of Roman Law
Buckland WW A Text-Book of Roman Law: From Augustus to Justinian (Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1963)

Burchell "Criminal Law"
Burchell J "Criminal Law" in CG van der Merwe and JE du Plessis (eds) Introduction to the Law of South Africa (Kluwer Law International The Hague 2004) 447-491

Burdick Principles of Roman Law
Burdick WL The Principles of Roman Law and their Relation to Modern Law (The Lawbook Exchange Clark, NJ 2004)

Colquhoun Roman Civil Law
Colquhoun PMC A Summary of the Roman Civil Law, Illustrated by Commentaries on and Parallels for the Mosaic, Canon, Mohammedan, English and Foreign Law (Stevens London 1860)

De Zulueta Institutes of Gaius
De Zulueta F The Institutes of Gaius: Part II Commentary (Clarendon Press Oxford 1953)

Declareuil Rome
Declareuil J Rome the Law-Giver (Trubner & Co London 1927)

Descheemaeker Division of Wrongs
Descheemaeker E The Division of Wrongs: A Historical
Comparative Study (Oxford University Press Oxford 2009)

Diósdi Ownership
Diósdi G Ownership in Ancient and Preclassical Roman Law (Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest 1970)

Dressler Understanding Criminal Law
Dressler J Understanding Criminal Law 3rd ed (LexisNexis London 2001)

Du Plessis Borkowski's Textbook on Roman Law
Du Plessis PJ Borkowski's Textbook on Roman Law 5th ed (Oxford University Press Oxford 2015)

Duff 1954 CLJ
Duff PW "Furtum and Larceny" 1954 CLJ 86-88

Durrani Information and Liberation
Durrani S Information and Liberation: Writings on the Politics of Information and Librarianship (Library Juice Duluth 2008)

Elkin-Koren and Salzberger Law, Economics and Cyberspace
Elkin-Koren N and Salzberger EM Law, Economics and Cyberspace: The Effects of Cyberspace on the Economic Analysis of Law (Edward Elgar Cheltenham 2004)

Erlank Property in Virtual Worlds
Erlank W Property in Virtual Worlds (LLD-thesis Stellenbosch University 2012)

Fletcher 1976 Harv L Rev
Fletcher GP "The Metamorphosis of Larceny" 1976 Harv L Rev 469-530

Fletcher Rethinking Criminal Law
Fletcher GP Rethinking Criminal Law (Little, Brown Boston 1978)

Franklin Computer Crime
Franklin CF The Investigator's Guide to Computer Crime (Charles C Thomas Springfield, Ill 2006)

Frazel 2005 Am J Phil
Frazel TD "'Furtum' and the Description of Stolen Objects in Cicero 'In Verrem'" 2005 Am J Phil 363-376

Gellius Noctes
Gellius Noctes Atticae 11.18.20.22.23

Griew Theft Acts
Griew E The Theft Acts 7th ed (Sweet & Maxwell London 1995)

Grübler Technology
Grübler A Technology and Global Change (Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1998)

Hall Criminal Law
Hall DE Criminal Law and Procedure 6th ed (Delmar Cengage Learning Melbourne 2012)

Hall Theft, Law and Society
Hall J Theft, Law and Society 2nd ed (Bobbs-Merrill Indianapolis 1952)

Honoré Justinian's Digest
Honoré T Justinian's Digest: Character and Compilation (Oxford University Press Oxford 2010)

Howes and Davis Elements of Roman Law
Howes RB and Davis RPB The Elements of Roman Law: Being Selections from the Institutes of Justinian, with Explanatory Notes, for the Use of Students (Juta Cape Town 1923)

James English Law
James PS Introduction to English Law 11th ed (Butterworths London 1985)

Jankowich 2005 BUJSTL
Jankowich AE "Property and Democracy in Virtual Worlds" 2005 BUJSTL 173-220

Jolowicz Digest XLVII.2 De Furtis
Jolowicz HF Digest XLVII.2 De Furtis (Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1940)

Kaser Roman Private Law
Kaser M Roman Private Law (translated by Dannenbring R) (UNISA Pretoria 1980)

Keenan English Law
Keenan D Smith and Keenan's English Law 8th ed (Pitman London 1986)

Kiralfy English Law and Its Institutions
Kiralfy AKR Potter's Historical Introduction to English Law and Its Institutions 4th ed (Sijthoff Leiden 1962)

Kleyn, Boraine and Du Plessis Silberberg and Schoeman's The Law of Property
Kleyn DG, Boraine A and Du Plessis W Silberberg and Schoeman's The Law of Property 3rd ed (Butterworths Durban 1992)

Lansdown, Hoal and Lansdown Gardiner and Lansdown: South African Criminal Law
Lansdown CWH, Hoal WG and Lansdown AV Gardiner and Lansdown: South African Criminal Law and Procedure (Juta Cape Town 1957)

Lee and Lee "Mobile Commerce and National IT Infrastructure"
Lee O and Lee W "Mobile Commerce and National IT Infrastructure" in Pour MK (ed) Information Technology and Organisations: Trends, Issues, Challenges and Solutions (Idea Groug Hershey 2003) 352-354

Loubser Theft of Money
Loubser MM The Theft of Money in South African Law: With a Comparison of Other Legal Systems (LLD-thesis University of Stellenbosch 1978)

Maasdorp Institutes of South Africa
Maasdorp AFS The Institutes of South Africa: Being A Compendium of the Common Law, Decided Cases, and Statute Law of the Union of South Africa 5th ed (Juta Cape Town 1929)

MacKenzie Studies in Roman Law
MacKenzie L Studies in Roman Law with Comparative Views of Laws of France, England and Scotland (Gaunt Holmes Beach 1991)

MacQueen "Two Toms and the Ideology for Scots Law"
MacQueen HL "Two Toms and the Ideology for Scots Law – TB
Smith and Lord Cooper of Culross" in Reid E and Miller DLC (eds) A Mixed Legal System in Transition: TB Smith and the Process of Scots Law (Edinburgh University Press Edinburgh 2005) 44-72

Maré "Public Law"
Maré MC "Public Law – Criminal Law" in Hosten WJ et al Introduction to South African Law and Legal Theory (Butterworths Durban 1995) 1082-1125

Matthaeus De Criminibis
Matthaeus A De Criminibis (Hoogenhuysen Vesaliæ 1672)

McLynn Crime and Punishment
McLynn F Crime and Punishment in the Eighteenth-Century England (Routledge London 1989)

Milton Criminal Law and Procedure
Milton JRL South African Criminal Law and Procedure 3rd ed (Juta Cape Town 1996)

Moussourakis Fundamentals of Roman Private Law
Moussourakis G Fundamentals of Roman Private Law (Springer Berlin 2012)

Nathan Common Law of South Africa
Nathan M The Common Law of South Africa: A Treatise Based on Voet's Commentaries on the Pandects, With Reference to the Leading Roman-Dutch Authorities, South African Decisions, and Statutory Enactments in South Africa (Africa Book Company London 1904)

Oosthuizen Law of Property
Oosthuizen AJ The Law of Property (Juta Cape Town 1981)

Plucknett Common Law
Plucknett TFT A Concise History of the Common Law 5th ed (Lawbook Exchange Clark, NJ 2001)

Pollock and Maitland History of English Law
Pollock F and Maitland FW The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I 2nd ed (Lawbook Exchange Clark, NJ 2008)

Rapalje 1892 Crim L Mag & Rep
Rapalje S "Larceny Distinguished from Other Offences" 1892 Crim L Mag & Rep 706

Reeves History of English Law
Reeves J History of English Law, from the Times of Saxons, to the End of the Reign of Philip and Mary 2nd ed (Temple-Bar London 1787)

Restivo Science, Technology and Society
Restivo S Science, Technology and Society: An Encyclopedia (Oxford University Press Oxford 2005)

Robinson 1998 J Leg Hist
Robinson O "Justinian's Institutional Classification and the Class of Quasi-Delict" 1998 J Leg Hist 245-250

Rolfe Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius
Rolfe JC The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius (Harvard University Press Cambridge 1927)

Samuelson 1991 Comm ACM
Samuelson P "Is Information Property?" 1991 Comm ACM 15-18
Sandars Institutes of Justinian

Sandars TCS The Institutes of Justinian; With English Introduction, Translation, and Notes 2nd ed (Gaunt Inc Holmes Beach, Fl 1997)

Scheb Criminal Law
Scheb JM Criminal Law and Procedure 4th ed (Wadsworth Thomson Belmont 2002)

Scott Civil Law
Scott SP The Civil Law Including the Twelve Tables, The Institutes of Gaius, The Rules of Ulpian, The Opinions of Paulus, The Enactments of Justinian, and The Constitutions of Leo (AMS Press New York 1973)

Scurlock 1948 Temple LQ
Scurlock J "The Element of Trespass in Larceny at Common Law" 1948 Temple LQ 12-45

Sieber "Emergence of Information Law"
Sieber U "The Emergence of Information Law - Object and Characteristics of a New Legal Order" in Lederman E and Shapira R (eds) Law, Information and Information Technology (Kluwer Law International The Hague 2001) 1-30

Sinatambou "Approach of Mixed Legal Systems"
Sinatambou E "The Approach of Mixed Legal Systems – The Case of Mauritius" in Bowman M and Bole A (eds) Environmental Damages in International and Comparative Law: Problems of Definition and Valuation (Oxford University Press Oxford 2002) 271-280

Singer and La Fond Criminal Law
Singer RG and La Fond JQ Criminal Law 5th ed (Wolters Kluwer New York 2010)

Smith and Anthon Greek and Roman Antiquities
Smith W and Anthon C A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (American Book New York 1843)

Snyman Criminal Law
Snyman CR Criminal Law 5th ed (LexisNexis Durban 2008)

Snyman Strafreg
Snyman CR Strafreg (LexisNexis Durban 2012)

Soete Building the European Information Society
Soete L Building the European Information Society for Us All: Final Policy Report of the High Expert Group (European Communities Brussels 1997)

Sohm Institutes
Sohm R The Institutes: A Textbook of the History and the System of Roman Private Law 3rd ed (Clarendon London 1907)

Stephen Criminal Law
Stephen JF A Digest of the Criminal Law (Crimes and Punishments) 5th ed (MacMillan New York 1894)

Thomas Institutes of Justinian
Thomas JAC The Institutes of Justinian: Text, Translation and Commentary (Juta Cape Town 1975)

Turner Russell on Crime
Turner JWC Russell on Crime 12th ed (Stevens London 1964)

Valpy Etymological Dictionary
Valpy FEJ An Etymological Dictionary of the Latin Language (Baldwin London 1828)

Van der Merwe Communication Technology Law
Van der Merwe DP Information and Communication Technology Law (LexisNexis Durban 2008)

Van der Merwe "Law of Property"
Van der Merwe CG "Law of Property" in Van der Merwe CG, Du Plessis JE and Zimmermann R (eds) Introduction to the Law of South Africa (Kluwer Law International The Hague 2004) 201-242

Van der Merwe Law of Things
Van der Merwe CG The Law of Things (Butterworths Durban 1987)

Van der Walt and Kleyn "Duplex Dominium"
Van der Walt AJ and Kleyn DG "Duplex Dominium – The Theory and Significance of the Concept of Divided Ownership" in Visser DP (ed) Essays on the History of Law (Juta Cape Town 1989) 213-260

Van der Walt and Pienaar Law of Property 2nd ed
Van der Walt AJ and Pienaar GJ Introduction to the Law of Property 2nd ed (Juta Cape Town 1997)

Van der Walt and Pienaar Law of Property 3rd ed
Van der Walt AJ and Pienaar GJ Introduction to the Law of Property 3rd ed (Juta Cape Town 1999)

Visser et al Mercantile and Company Law
Visser C et al South African Mercantile and Company Law 8th ed (Juta Cape Town 2003)

Voet Commentarius ad Pandectas
Voet J Commentarius ad Pandectas (Juta Cape Town 1902)

Watson 1960 Tijds Rgeschied
Watson A "The Definition of Furtum and the Trichotomy" 1960 Tijds Rgeschied 197-210

Watson Roman Private Law
Watson A Studies in Roman Private Law (Hambledon London 1991)
Watson Western Private Law
Watson A The Evolution of Western Private Law (Johns Hopkins University Press Baltimore 2001)

Weinrib 1988 UTLJ
Weinrib AS "Information and Property" 1988 UTLJ 117-150

Williams Textbook of Criminal Law
Williams G Textbook of Criminal Law 2nd ed (Stevens and Sons London 1983)

Zimmerman Law of Obligations
Zimmerman R The Law of Obligations: Roman Foundations of the Civilian Tradition (Juta Cape Town 1990)

Case law

Borland's Trustee v Steel Brothers & Co Ltd 1901 1 Ch 279

Commonwealth v Ryan 1892 155 Mass 523, 30 NE 364

Cooper v Boyes 1994 4 SA 521 (CPD)

Ex Parte Eloff 1953 1 SA 617 (T)

Froman v Herbmore Timber and Hardware (Pty) Ltd 1984 3 SA 609 (W)

Lawrence v Commissioner of the Police for the Metropolis 1971 2 All ER 1253

Nissan South Africa (Pty) Limited v Marnitz (Stand 1 at 6 Aeroport (Pty) Limited Intervening) 2005 1 SA 441 (SCA)

Oxford v Moss 1979 68 Cr App R 183

R v Ashwell 16 QBD 190

R v Dier 1883-1884 3 EDC 436

R v Fortuin 1880-1884 1 Buch AC 290

R v Herholdt 1957 3 All SA 105 (A)

R v Holloway 1 Den CC 370

R v Hudson 1943 1 KB 458

R v Laforte 1922 CPD 487

R v Lawrence 1970 3 All ER 933

R v Lessing 1907 21 EDC 220

R v Makogo 1915 TPD 516

R v Mtshali 1960 4 All SA 156 (N)

R v Olivier 1921 TPD 120

R v Sibiya 1955 4 All SA 312 (A)

R v Stanbridge 1959 3 All SA 218 (C)

Regina v Stewart 149 DLR (3d) 583

Regina v Williams 1953 1 QB 660

Thomas Marshall (Exports) Ltd v Guinle 1978 3 All ER 193

S v Graham 1975 3 All SA 572 (A)

S v Harper 1981 2 SA 638 (D)

S v Kotze 1961 1 SA 118 (SCA)

S v M 1982 1 SA 309 (O)

S v Mintoor 1996 1 SASV 514 (K)

S v Ndebele 2012 1 SACR 245 (GSJ)

Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd v Ocean Commodities Inc 1983 1 SA 276 (A)

Legislation

Copyright Act 98 of 1978

Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act 120 of 1992

Electricity Act 41 of 1987

Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002

Electronic Transactions Act 772 of 2008 (Ghana)

Financial Intelligence Centre Act 38 of 2001

Game Theft Act 105 of 1991

Larceny Act of 1916 (England)

Proceeds of Crime Act 76 of 1996

Theft Act of 1968 (England)
Views
  • Abstract 921
  • PDF 369
  • XML 2
  • epub 41
Views and downloads are with effect from 11 January 2018
Published
2017-05-17
Section
Articles