Pre- and Post-Trial Equality in Criminal Justice in the Context of the Separation of Powers




prosecutors, nolle prosequi, pre-trial equality, post-trial equality, pardon, parole, administrative act, administration of justice, criminal justice, judicial power, prerogative power


The previous Westminster criminal justice system entailed a different kind of separation of powers insofar as it concerns the role of state prosecutors. In the Westminster system prosecutors are part of the executive branch, whereas they were a split-off from the judiciary in constitutional states and function like a de facto second organ of the third branch of state power. Currently executive interference in state prosecutions often leads to pre-trial inequality. A further difficulty arises from the unconsidered manner in which the former royal prerogative of pardoning was retained in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. It used to be a royal veto of judicial sentences in the constitutional monarchy of the former Westminster model. Although the corresponding veto of parliamentary legislation by the head of state did not survive into modern times, the pardoning power has not been discontinued. Section 84(2)(j) thus causes an irreconcilable conflict with section 165(5) of the Constitution which guarantees the legally binding force of judicial decisions. It undermines the rule of law and leads to post-trial inequality in the execution of sentences. The parole system, which dates back to 1959, likewise allows the executive to overrule judicial sentences and is in conflict with section 165(5). The perpetuation of the status quo in criminal justice is in effect leading to a re-Westminstering of the constitutional state.



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Promotion of Access to Information Act 2 of 2000

Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act (USA) (RICO)

Republic of South Africa Constitution Act 32 of 1961 (1961 Constitution)

Republic of South Africa Constitution Act 110 of 1983 (1983 Constitution)

Separate Representation of Voters Act 46 of 1951

South African Police Service Amendment Act 57 of 2008

Strafgesetzbuch (German Criminal Code) (StGB)

Strafprozeßordnung (German Criminal Procedure Act) (StPO)

Verordnung über das Verfahren in Gnadensachen (Procedural Regulations for Granting Clemency) 1935

Register of government publications

N 1659 in GG 18519 of 19 December 1997

Proc R 43 in GG 18879 of 1 May 1998

N 1543 in GG 19522 of 27 November 1998

Gen 2067 in GG 25282 of 30 July 2003

N 376 in GG 30885 of 18 March 2008

GG 31023 of 9 May 2008

N 1221 in GG 31593 of 11 November 2008

N 68 in GG 32608 of 1 October 2009

N 197 in GG 32999 of 5 March 2010

GG 33216 of 21 May 2010

Register of international instruments

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984)

Protocol No 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances (2002)

Register of official documents and reports

Council of Europe Report (2009)

Council of Europe 2009 Allegations of politically motivated abuses of the criminal justice system in Council of Europe member states Doc 11993 [date of use 25 Jul 2011]

Draft Constitutional Renewal Bill (2008)

Select Committee of Justice 2008 Provisions in the Draft Constitutional Renewal Bill

/698/69806.htm [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Ginwala Report (2008)

Ginwala F 2008 Report of the Enquiry into the Fitness of Advocate VP Pikoli to hold the Office of National Director of Public Prosecutions [date of use 25 Jul 2011]

Hefer Commision of Inquiry Report (2004)

Hefer J 2004 The Hefer Commission of Inquiry Report [date of use 25 Jul 2011]

Khampepe Inquiry Final Report (2006)

Khampepe S 2006 Inquiry into the Mandate and Location of the Directorate of Special Operations ('the DSO') Final Report

/docs/reports/khampepe/part1.pdf [date of use ?]

Report of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (2009)

Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation 2009 Why does SA have such high rates of violent crime?

unique_about_SA.pdf [date of use ?]

Sentencing: A New Sentencing Framework (2000)

South African Law Reform Commission 2000 Sentencing: A New Sentencing Framework [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Register of newspaper reports

"20 cops guard Shaik in hospital" News24 (2006-11-27)

"A final journey" Mail & Guardian (2010-3-5)

"Agliotti ruling: 'Dining with the devil'" Mail & Guardian (2010-11-25)

"Alle Menschen sind gleich, Kohl ist gleicher" Süddeutsche Zeitung (2001-29)

"Andhra Pradesh move to free 1,500 prisoners halted" Legal News India (2006-8-16)

"Armed policemen arrest Scorpions boss" Mail & Guardian (2008-1-9)

"Arms deal probe (2000-2010)" Mail & Guardian (2010-10-15)

"Appeals for Shaik pardon" Sunday Tribune (2008-9-14)

"Balfour: Shaik's condition terminal" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-3)

"Balfour 'vindicated' by Shaik reports" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-10)

"Balfour welcomes clearing of Shaik's doctors" Mail & Guardian (2009-4-20)

"Besser unabhängig" Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (2006-10-6)

"Boesak's parole in national hands – directive" IOL (2001-5-16)

"Boesak to walk free tomorrow" The Star (2001-5-21)

"Bomb scare after Shaik ruling" News24 (2006-11-6)

"Bush aides pushed to get attorneys replaced" International Herald Tribune (2009-8-13)

"Cele's brutal force" Sunday Independent (2011-3-22)

"Charges against Gerrie Nel withdrawn" Mail & Guardian (2008-1-14)

"Court: Remission not an act of grace" The Hindu (2006-10-12)

"Crooked patient, crooked docs" News24 (2007-1-20)

"DA man seeks answers on Shaik" Sunday Independent (2009-8-10)

"DA versoek Motlanthe dat na Shaik se parool gekyk word" Beeld (2009-3-11)

"De Kock deal speculation mounts despite government denials" Legalbrief (2010-1-11)

"Derby-Lewis' cancer 'worse than expected'" Mail & Guardian (2010-11-04)

"Desai admits Shaik parole damaged credibility of system" Mail & Guardian (2009-11-04)

"Diarrhoea hits Shaik jail" News24 (2006-11-16)

"Did the NIA spy on judges?" DA@Work (2008-6-23)

"Discovery investigates Shaik" News24 (2007-1-10)

"Doctors 'unanimous' on Shaik" Sunday Independent (2009-3-4)

"Experts slam medical evidence in Shaik's release" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-10)

"Family shocked by death of 'demoted' law guru" IOL (2010-3-31)

"Full NPA Statement" News24 (2009-4-6)

"Ginwala absolves Mbeki" Mail & Guardian (2008-12-5)

"Glenn Agliotti cleared of Kebble murder" Mail & Guardian (2010-11-25)

"Government is NPA's boss – Zuma" News24 (2009-12-14)

"Govt mum on Schabir Shaik" Mail & Guardian (2011-3-16)

"Hawks boss questions viability of arms-deal probe" Mail & Guardian (2010-9-8)

"How arms-deal 'bribes' were paid" Mail & Guardian (2008-12-5)

"How civil servants fleeced us of R600m" The Times (2009-6-14)

"How Ginwala blew it" Mail & Guardian (2008-12-12)

"How Menzi stymied arms probe" Mail & Guardian (2010-12-3)

"I discharged Shaik months ago from hospital" IOL (2009-3-8)

"I want my f*%#@!! pardon" City Press (2009-12-20)

"I was suspended over Selebi, says Pikoli" Mail &Guardian (2008-5-7)

"I'm the victim – broken Shaik" News24 (2006-1-31)

"Improper not to prosecute JZ" Mail & Guardian (2010-10-1)

"Inside Operation destroy Lucifer" Mail & Guardian (2009-6-19)

"Is Shaik dying?" Sunday Independent (2009-3-4)

"Italian court rules Berlusconi's immunity law unconstitutional" The Guardian (2009-10-7)

"It's hard to visit Shaik, family complains" Mail & Guardian (2007-11-16)

"Jacob Zuma's replying affidavit to the DA" Politicsweb (2009-9-17)

"Journalist's harrowing account" Times Live (2010-8-8)

"JSC should vet NDPP candidates – DA" Politicsweb (2009-2-19)

"Khampepe report: presidency defends delay" The Mercury (2008-5-5)

"Law Lords: Fraud office right to end bribery investigation in BAE Case" The Guardian (2008-8-31)

"Lawyers, NGOs, media urged to oppose judicial bills" Legalbrief Today (2006-2-22)

"Maduna comments lead to SIU brain drain: Heath" ANC Dialy News Briefing (2001-10-18)

"Maduna dashes Boesak's pardon hopes" IOL (2003-8-22)

"Man behind the Zuma deal" Cape Argus (2009-3-20)

"Mbeki, Manuel 'doctored arms deal report'" News24 (2009-10-22)

"Mbeki 'paid R30m arms-deal bribe'" Mail & Guardian (2008-8-3)

"Meddlesome Menzi" Mail & Guardian (2008-8-15)

"Minister fumes after oversight judge releases details of prisons report to press" Sunday Independent (2010-11-21)

"Miscarriage of justice marked by lack of will" Mail & Guardian (2010-11-6)

"Moontlike kwytskelding vir Eugene dalk sluier vir Shaik, IVP's se vryheid" Rapport (2010-1-9)

"Motlanthe asked to act on Shaik" The Times (2009-3-12)

"National Prosecuting Authority vows to clear the air on Shaik deal" Sunday Independent (2009-1-22)

"Nel taken off Agliotti case" Mail & Guardian (2010-5-7)

"New-look judiciary mooted" Mail & Guardian (2009-11-27)

"No basis for review of Shaik parole, says department" Mail & Guardian (2009-8-11)

"No deadline on Shaik" The Times (2009-10-20)

"'No truth' in rumours of Shaik release" Mail & Guardian (2008-10-2)

"On Mpshe's legally flawed decision" Legal Brief (2009-4-17)

"Parliament committee questions Shaik's hospital time" Mail & Guardian (2008-8-4)

"Parole only for terminally ill, says judge" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-3)

"Permanente Erregung. Eine Bilanz des Untersuchungsausschusses zur Parteispendenaffäre" Die Zeit (24/2002)

"Pflicht zum gehorsam" Der Spiegel 13/1991

"Pikoli's replying affidavit in interdict application" Politicsweb (2009-8-12)

"Politics can't be the factor in pardon: SC" Indian Express (2006-10-12)

"Power of pardon subject to review" The Hindu (2006-10-12)

"Prison staff biggest killers" Sunday Independent (2010-11-22)

"Proposed bill threatens constitutional supremacy – Dene Smuts" Politicsweb (2009-2-22)

"Prosecutors look into assault complaint against Shaik" Mail & Guardian (2011-3-22)

"Replying affidavit of Zuma to the DA" Politicsweb (2009-9-17)

"Schabir seen teeing off "The Citizen (2009-8-11)

"Schabir Shaik accused of assaulting journalist" Mail & Guardian (2011-2-27)

"Schabir Shaik and the R10-million house" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-13)

"Schabir Shaik arrested" Mail & Guardian (2011-3-14)

"Schabir Shaik could be a free man soon" The Times (2009-1-10)

"Schabir Shaik denies he was driving in Durban" Mail & Guardian (2009-8-13)

"Schabir Shaik nears 100 days of freedom" Sunday Tribune (2009-6-7)

"Schabir Shaik's bid for freedom" The Sowetan (2008-9-17)

"Schabir Shaik's last bid for freedom" Mail & Guardian (2007-5-22)

"Schabir Shaik's parole paradise" Mail & Guardian (2010-1-8)

"Schabir Shaik still in hospital" Mail & Guardian (2008-4-23)

"Schabir's gambit" Mail & Guardian (2009-12-23)

"Scramble to secure a Zuma presidency" Mail & Guardian (2008-8-9)

"Seeking the Shaik option" The Citizen (2009-3-11)

"Sergeant at the Bar 'One law for the poor, another for the politically connected?'" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-10)

"Shady shrink saved Shaik" Mail & Guardian (2010-3-5)

"Shaik 'could be a prison asset'" News24 (2006-11-9)

"Shaik: DA demands records" Cape Argus (2009-3-6)

"Shaik depressed – in hospital" News24 (2007-4-16)

"Shaik doctor expects fallout" Daily News (2009-3-9)

"Shaik doctors acted professionally – HPCSA" Daily News (2009-4-20)

"Shaik family 'the most optimistic'" The Star (2009-9-15)

"Shaik family 'wants to negotiate'" News24 (2007-3-5)

"Shaik got parole just in time" The Star (2009-3-6)

"Shaik in last bid for freedom" News24 (2007-5-22)

"Shaik is gravely ill – family" Sunday Independent (2009-3-3)

"Shaik is not dying" The Times (2009-3-11)

"Shaik is not under house arrest, says official" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-4)

"Shaik medical parole 'absurd'" News24 (2007-1-8)

"Shaik moved to critical-care unit of Durban hospital" Mail & Guardian (2008-4-27)

"Shaik not eligible for parole" The Citizen (2008-9-16)

"Shaik parole not unprecedented: Surty" The Times (2009-3-5)

"Shaik parole should be reviewed – Kollapen" Sunday Independent (2009-3-4)

"Shaik parole was legally correct – Wolela" IOL (2009-3-4)

"Shaik released on Wednesday afternoon" Mail & Guardian (2011-3-16)

"Shaik 'remained in hospital' until release" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-8)

"Shaik pardon would be 'unfortunate': Devenish" The Times (2009-10-20)

"Shaik sent back to prison" News24 (2007-2-15)

"Shaik settlement 'normal' – National Prosecuting Authority" IOL (2009-1-22)

"Shaik smuggled into cushy ward" News24 (2007-1-12)

"Shaik spits fire" City Press (2009-12-20)

"Shaik spotted driving around Durban" The Times (2009-8-10)

"Shaik spotted playing golf: report" The Times (2009-8-12)

"Shaik, state 'in R5-million deal'" Mail and Guardian (2009-1-22)

"Shaik suffered stroke" News24 (2006-12-3)

"Shaik suffers stroke" News24 (2007-11-15)

"Shaik to meet parole board over golf course report" Mail & Guardian (2011-3-7)

"Shaik to undergo medical test" News24 (2007-2-12)

"Shaik 'too ill' to leave clinic" News24 (2007-2-8)

"Shaik undergoes facial surgery" Sunday Tribune (2007-1-7)

"Shaik walks free" The Star (2009-3-3)

"Shaik was 'strictly confined' – report" Cape Argus (2007-5-23)

"Shaik well enough to dine out?" Sunday Tribune (2009-6-28)

"Shaik windfall normal, says National Prosecuting Authority" The Mercury (2009-1-22)

"Shaik 'won't try medical pardon'" News24 (2007-1-9)

"Shaiking up a storm" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-8)

"Shaik's condition 'terminal' – Balfour" (2009-3-4)

"Shaik's desperate move to clear his name" IOL (2006-11-18)

"Shaik's hospital costs could be R3m" The Mercury (2008-9-17)

"Shaik's medical miracle" Mail & Guardian (2010-6-15)

"Shaik's mental health 'a worry'" News24 (2007-2-17)

"Shaik's parole 'a strange thing'" The Star (2009-3-7)

"Should the ConCourt be our apex court?" Politicsweb (2011-4-13)

"Silks split over NPA reforms" Mail & Guardian (2010-6-13)

"Simelane backs down on demotions" City Press (2010-4-4)

"Simelane gags NPA staff" Politicsweb (2010-1-21)

"Simelane must explain disbanding of SCCU – DA" Politicsweb (2010-5-11)

"Sources: SIU deputy head facing the axe" News24 (2010-11-28)

"State: Prima facie case against Agliotti exists" Mail & Guardian (2010-11-18)

"Terminal Schabir's midnight ride" Mail & Guardian (2009-8-15)

"The 'Berlusconi principle'" The Times (2008-7-29)

"The big Shaik sham!" The Times (2009-3-8)

"The case against Jacob G Zuma" Mail & Guardian (2009-4-3)

"The high price of political solutions" Mail & Guardian (2009-4-27)

"The incredible Mr Simelane" Mail & Guardian (2008-8-15)

"The man behind the Zuma deal" Cape Argus (2009-3-20)

"The spy who saved Zuma" Mail & Guardian (2009-4-9)

"The Untouchables - the ANC remake" The Daily Maverick (2010-3-19)

"Top cop scuttled Zuma case" Mail & Guardian (2010-5-21)

"Transcript of Kgalema Motlanthe's media briefing" Politicsweb (10-2-2009)

"Trapido: 'Balfour must fall on his sword over Shaik'" Thought Leader Mail & Guardian (2009-3-25);

"Triple play to save Zuma" Mail & Guardian (2008-7-11)

"Unconstitutional to prosecute Zuma – Kemp" Politicsweb (2010-6-10)

"Was Ngcuka an Apartheid Spy" City Press (2003-9-7)

"We had a good case against Jacob Zuma, says prosecutor" Sunday World (2009-04-11)

"What Dramat and Simelane said about the arms deal" Politicsweb (2010-9-10)

"Why did Simelane protect Mphego?" Politicsweb (2010-5-24)

"Why I let Fana Hlongwane off the hook – Menzi Simelane" Politicsweb (2010-3-21)

"Yengeni resigns directorships" IOL (2010-11-4)

"Yengeni's illegal directorships: DA lays criminal charges" Politicsweb (2010-11-1)

"Zille, Kasrils meet over spying" News24 (2008-2-14)

"Zuma has considered IFP pardons – Presidency" Politicsweb (2010-2-4)

"Zuma lashes out at those wanting Shaik dead" Mail & Guardian (2009-3-14)

"Zuma unlikely to be charged again, says judge" The Daily News (2009-4-7).

"Zuma's five minutes to freedom" The Daily News (7 April 2009)

Register of internet sources

Anonymous 2002

Anonymous 2002 Beurteilung der Ergebnisse des Bundestagsunter-suchungsausschusses 'Parteispenden' durch die zuständigen Berichterstatter von SPD und Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (11 June 2002) [date of use 25 Jul 2011]

Anonymous 2009

Anonymous 2009 "Parole: A tough balancing act" Corrections Review (March 2009) [date of use unknown]

ANC [no date]

ANC [no date] Second Submission to the TRC – Part 2 Appendix One [date of use unknown]

Balfour 2009

Balfour N 2009 Department of Correctional Services press release on the event of the release of Mr Schabir Shaik on medical parole by the Durban Westville Management, 4 March 2009

htm [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Collin 2001

Collin P 2001 Die Geburt der Staatsanwaltschaft in Preußen [date of use 25 Jul 2011]

Dept of Correctional Services 2007

Department of Correctional Service 2007 Statement: Mr Yengeni's placement under correctional supervision and parole, 14 January 2007. [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Dept of Justice and Constitutional Development 2008

Dept of Justice and Constitutional Development 2008 Terms of Reference for a Special Dispensation on Presidential Pardoning Process Relating to Certain Offenders [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Deutscher Bundestag 2002

Deutscher Bundestag 2002 Beschlußempfehlung und Bericht, Bundestag doc. 14/9300 (13 June 2002) [date of use 25 Jul 2011]

Ellis 2009

Ellis P 2009 Complaint against Adv Menzi Simelane [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Federal Ministry of Justice [no date]

Federal Ministry of Justice [no date] Information Brochureüre_englisch.pdf [date of use unknown]

Justice, Crime Prevention and Security Cluster 2006

Justice, Crime Prevention and Security Cluster 2006 Government's Programme of Action – Report

/apr2006/jcps.htm [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Kirby 1999

Kirby J 1999 Legal Institutions in Transition: Modes of Appointment and Training of Judges – A Common Law Perspective: lecture held at a seminar in Belfast on 8 June 1999

/kirbyj_judicial2.htm [date of ue unknown]

Maduna 2001

Maduna P 2001 Request for a Proclamation under the Special Investigating Units and the Special Tribunals Act, 1996 (Act 74 of 1996) [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Maer and Gay 2008

Maer L and Gay O 2008 The Royal Prerogative, Parliament and Constitution Centre UK Parliament Standard Note SN/PC/03861 (updated 3 November 2008) [date of use?]

Mbeki 2007

Mbeki T 2007 Address by President of South Africa to the Joint Sitting of Parliament to Report on the Processing of some Presidential Pardons, 21 November 2007 [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Development 2005

Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Development 2005 Media statement for presidential pardon in terms of section 84(2)(j) of the Constitution of the RSA, 1996 to expunge criminal records. A special reference to dr Allan Aubrey Boesak's case, 18 January 2005

/05011815151001.htm [date of use 26 Jul 2011]

Naidoo and Khan 2009

Naidoo DP and Khan S 2009 Letter to Mr Marais, Re: Schabir Shaik Patient Number KZ00132232 [date of use 26 Jul 2011]



How to Cite

Wolf, L. (2017). Pre- and Post-Trial Equality in Criminal Justice in the Context of the Separation of Powers. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 14(5), 57–203.




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